Charles Limb: Building the musical muscle

Charles Limb: Building the musical muscle

Now when we think of our senses, we don’t usually think of the reasons why they probably evolved, from a biological perspective. We don’t really think of the evolutionary need to be protected by our senses, but that’s probably why our senses really evolved — to keep us safe, to allow us to live. Really when we think of our senses, or when we think of the loss of the sense, we really think about something more like this: the ability to touch something luxurious, to taste something delicious, to smell something fragrant, to see something beautiful. This is what we want out of our senses. We want beauty; we don’t just want function. And when it comes to sensory restoration, we’re still very far away from being able to provide beauty. And that’s what I’d like to talk to you a little bit about today. Likewise for hearing. When we think about why we hear, we don’t often think about the ability to hear an alarm or a siren, although clearly that’s an important thing. Really what we want to hear is music. (Music) So many of you know that that’s Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony. Many of you know that he was deaf, or near profoundly deaf, when he wrote that. Now I’d like to impress upon you how unusual it is that we can hear music. Music is just one of the strangest things that there is. It’s acoustic vibrations in the air, little waves of energy in the air that tickle our eardrum. Somehow in tickling our eardrum that transmits energy down our hearing bones, which get converted to a fluid impulse inside the cochlea and then somehow converted into an electrical signal in our auditory nerves that somehow wind up in our brains as a perception of a song or a beautiful piece of music. That process is entirely abstract and very, very unusual. And we could discuss that topic alone for days to really try to figure out, how is it that we hear something that’s emotional from something that starts out as a vibration in the air? Turns out that if you have hearing loss, most people that lose their hearing lose it at what’s called the cochlea, the inner ear. And it’s at the hair cell level that they do this. Now if you had to pick a sense to lose, I have to be very honest with you and say, we’re better at restoring hearing than we are at restoring any sense that there is. In fact, nothing even actually comes close to our ability to restore hearing. And as a physician and a surgeon, I can confidently tell my patients that if you had to pick a sense to lose, we are the furthest along medically and surgically with hearing. As a musician, I can tell you that if I had to have a cochlear implant, I’d be heartbroken. I’d just be plainly heartbroken, because I know that music would never sound the same to me. Now this is a video that I’m going to show you of a girl who’s born deaf. She’s in a very supportive environment. Her mother’s doing everything she can. Okay, play that video please. (Video) Mother: That’s an owl. Owl, yeah. Owl. Owl. Yeah. Baby. Baby. You want it? (Kiss) Charles Limb: Now despite everything going for this child in terms of family support and simple infused learning, there is a limitation to what a child who’s deaf, an infant who was born deaf, has in this world in terms of social, educational, vocational opportunities. I’m not saying that they can’t live a beautiful, wonderful life. I’m saying that they’re going to face obstacles that most people who have normal hearing will not have to face. Now hearing loss and the treatment for hearing loss has really evolved in the past 200 years. I mean literally, they used to do things like stick ear-shaped objects onto your ears and stick funnels in. And that was the best you could do for hearing loss. Back then you couldn’t even look at the eardrum. So it’s not too surprising that there were no good treatments for hearing loss. And now today we have the modern multi-channel cochlear implant, which is an outpatient procedure. It’s surgically placed inside the inner ear. It takes about an hour and a half to two hours, depending on where it’s done, under general anesthesia. And in the end, you achieve something like this where an electrode array is inserted inside the cochlea. Now actually, this is quite crude in comparison to our regular inner ear. But here is that same girl who is implanted now. This is her 10 years later. And this is a video that was taken by my surgical mentor, Dr. John Niparko, who implanted her. If we could play this video please. (Video) John Niparko: So you’ve written two books? Girl: I have written two books. (Mother: Was the other one a book or a journal entry?) Girl: No, the other one was a book. (Mother: Oh, okay.) JN: Well this book has seven chapters, and the last chapter is entitled “The Good Things About Being Deaf.” Do you remember writing that chapter? Girl: Yes I do. I remember writing every chapter. JN: Yeah. Girl: Well sometimes my sister can be kind of annoying. So it comes in handy to not be annoyed by her. JN: I see. And who is that? Girl: Holly. (JN: Okay.) Mother: Her sister. (JN: Her sister.) Girl: My sister. JN: And how can you avoid being annoyed by her? Girl: I just take off my CI, and I don’t hear anything. (Laughter) It comes in handy. JN: So you don’t want to hear everything that’s out there? Girl: No. CL: And so she’s phenomenal. And there’s no way that you can’t look at that as an overwhelming success. It is. It’s a huge success story in modern medicine. However, despite this incredible facility that some cochlear implant users display with language, you turn on the radio and all of a sudden they can’t hear music almost at all. In fact, most implant users really struggle and dislike music because it sounds so bad. And so when it comes to this idea of restoring beauty to somebody’s life, we have a long way to go when it comes to audition. Now there are a lot of reasons for that. I mentioned earlier the fact that music is a different capacity because it’s abstract. Language is very different. Language is very precise. In fact, the whole reason we use it is because it has semantic-specificity. When you say a word, what you care is that word was perceived correctly. You don’t care that the word sounded pretty when it was spoken. Music is entirely different. When you hear music, if it doesn’t sound good, what’s the point? There’s really very little point in listening to music when it doesn’t sound good to you. The acoustics of music are much harder than those of language. And you can see on this figure, that the frequency range and the decibel range, the dynamic range of music is far more heterogeneous. So if we had to design a perfect cochlear implant, what we would try to do is target it to be able to allow music transmission. Because I always view music as the pinnacle of hearing. If you can hear music, you should be able to hear anything. Now the problems begin first with pitch perception. I mean, most of us know that pitch is a fundamental building block of music. And without the ability to perceive pitch well, music and melody is a very difficult thing to do — forget about a harmony and things like that. Now this is a MIDI arrangement of Rachmaninoff’s Prelude. Now if we could just play this. (Music) Okay, now if we consider that in a cochlear implant patient pitch perception could be off as much as two octaves, let’s see what happens here when we randomize this to within one semitone. We would be thrilled if we had one semitone pitch perception in cochlear implant users. Go ahead and play this one. (Music) Now my goal in showing you that is to show you that music is not robust to degradation. You distort it a little bit, especially in terms of pitch, and you’ve changed it. And it might be that you kind of like that. That’s kind of hypnotic. But it certainly wasn’t the way the music was intended. And you’re not hearing the same thing that most people who have normal hearing are hearing. Now the other issue comes with, not just the ability to tell pitches apart, but the ability to tell sounds apart. Most cochlear implant users cannot tell the difference between an instrument. If we could play these two sound clips in succession. (Trumpet) The trumpet. And the second one. (Violin) That’s a violin. These have similar wave forms. They’re both sustained instruments. Cochlear implant users cannot tell the difference between these instruments. The sound quality, or the sound of the sound is how I like to describe timbre, tone color — they cannot tell these things whatsoever. This implant is not transmitting the quality of music that usually provides things like warmth. Now if you look at the brain of an individual who has a cochlear implant and you have them listen to speech, have them listen to rhythm and have them listen to melody, what you find is that the auditory cortex is the most active during speech. You would think that because these implants are optimized for speech, they were designed for speech. But actually if you look at melody, what you find is that there’s very little cortical activity in implant users compared with normal hearing controls. So for whatever reason, this implant is not successfully stimulating auditory cortices during melody perception. Now the next question is, well how does it really sound? Now we’ve been doing some studies to really get a sense of what sound quality is like for these implant users. I’m going to play you two clips of Usher, one which is normal and one which has almost no high frequencies, almost no low frequencies and not even that many mid frequencies. Go ahead and play that. (Music) (Limited Frequency Music) I had patients tell me that those sound the same. They cannot differentiate sound quality differences between those two clips. Again, we are very, very far away in just getting to where we want to get to. Now the question comes to mind: Is there any hope? And yes, there is hope. Now I don’t know if anybody knows who this is. This is … does somebody know? This is Beethoven. Now why would we know what Beethoven’s skull looks like? Because his grave was exhumed. And it turns out that his temporal bones were harvested when he died to try to look at the cause of his deafness, which is why he has molding clay and his skull is bulging out on the side there. But Beethoven composed music long after he lost his hearing. What that suggests is that, even in the case of hearing loss, the capacity for music remains. The brains remain hardwired for music. I’ve been very lucky to work with Dr. David Ryugo where I’ve been working on deaf cats that are white and trying to figure out what happens when we give them cochlear implants. This is a cat that’s been trained to respond to a trumpet for food. (Music) Text: Beethoven doesn’t excite her. (Music) The “1812 Overture” isn’t worth waking for. (Trumpet) But she jumps to action when called to duty! (Trumpet) CL: Now I’m not suggesting that the cat is hearing that trumpet the way we’re hearing it. I’m suggesting that with training you can imbue a musical sound with significance, even in a cat. If we were to direct efforts towards training cochlear implant users to hear music — because right now there’s virtually no effort put towards that, no rehabilitative strategies, very little in the way of technological advances to actually improve music — we would come a long way. Now I want to show you one last video. And this is of a student of mine named Joseph who I had the good fortune to work with for three years in my lab. He’s deaf, and he learned to play the piano after he received the cochlear implant. And here’s a video of Joseph. (Music) (Video) Joseph: I was born in 1986. And at about four months old, I was diagnosed with profoundly severe hearing loss. Not long after, I was fitted with hearing aids. But although these hearing aids were the most powerful hearing aids on the market at the time, they weren’t very helpful. So as a result, I had to rely on lip reading a lot, and I couldn’t really hear what people were saying. When I was 12 years old, I was one of the first few people in Singapore who underwent cochlear implantation. And not long after I got my cochlear implant, I started learning how to play piano. And it was absolutely wonderful. Since then, I’ve never looked back. CL: Joseph is phenomenal. He’s brilliant. He is now a medical student at Yale University, and he’s contemplating a surgical career — one of the first deaf individuals to consider a career in surgery. There are almost no deaf surgeons anywhere. And this is really unheard of stuff, and this is all because of this technology. And the fact that he can play the piano like that is a testament to his brain. Truth of the matter is you can play the piano without a cochlear implant, because all you have to do is press the keys at the right time. You don’t actually have to hear it. I know he doesn’t hear well, because I’ve heard him do Karaoke. (Laughter) And it’s one of the most awful things — heartwarming, but awful. (Laughter) And so there is certainly a lot of hope, but there’s a lot more that needs to be done. So I just want to conclude with the following words. When it comes to restoration of hearing, we have certainly come a long way, a remarkably long way. And we have a much longer way to go when it comes to the idea of restoring perfect hearing. And let me tell you right now, it’s fine that we would all be very happy with speech. But I tell you, if we lost our hearing, if anyone here suddenly lost your hearing, you would want perfect hearing back. You wouldn’t want decent hearing, you would want perfect hearing. Restoration of basic sensory function is critical. And I don’t mean to understate how important it is to restore basic function. But it’s really restoration of the ability to perceive beauty where we can get inspiring. And I don’t think that we should give up on beauty. And I want to thank you for your time. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Charles Limb: Building the musical muscle

  1. @Namaste1001 D: no you're misunderstanding me. I haven't said atheism is my belief – I'm claiming that atheism isn't even a belief. I haven't mentioned knowledge at all. In which case, I will profess to not know that God does not exist. And acknowledging that has nothing to do with fitting the label called atheist.

  2. @TheGerogero – "My reasons for holding the belief there is no God" Isn't that the definition of Atheism or were you using it as an example?

    A belief that there is no God is still a belief.

  3. @Namaste1001 D: no you've what I've said out of context. My definition of atheism is the absence of belief in God – and the absence of belief can't be belief. I was trying to disassociate the term from "belief that there is no God" in which case it would be belief, but that is not what atheism is!

  4. @TheGerogero – Semantics really. It's pointless debating really as whatever belief/non-belief one holds the truth will still be the truth.

  5. This trumpet was much louder, had a fast rhythm, and was only one instrument. So this does not prove anything. BTW, has this cat been harmed (made (partly) deaf for these instruments?

  6. @Namaste1001 Haha 😀 it is semantics, but I think it's important to avoid the connotation to faith. But time's up for me, it's far past my bedtime and I'm already sufficiently sleep-deprived in my current state. I enjoyed the conversation. P.S. I do not think such a concept as "the truth" exists.

  7. Positive thinking, yes, but he places too much of an importance on an objective beauty, as perceived through the senses. It is important to look at beauty as an enlightening/wonderful experience itself rather than as something outside of us that we need to view or hear in order to experience. Yes, the experience of music and art is beautiful, but it needs to be understood these are also material things. What someone lacks in the ability to perceive certain ‘beautiful’ things, they will (CONTIN.)

  8. (CONT) make up for in other ‘beautiful’ areas of life. Helping others overcome, forming wholesome relationships, developing sincerity and understanding, sharing life experiences, etc are all more beautiful to me than are certain experiences of sight and hearing. Beauty is in the eye and the ear of the beholder. BUT if the beholder lacks or looses one or both senses, then they may find that there is a much greater beauty that lies within our minds, derived from our relationships with (CONT)

  9. (CONT) ourselves and others. The importance of healthy human function/ development and/or opportunity for free thought will always exceed that of 'perfect' sight/hearing.

  10. You think that the brain is hard wired for much? Disagree. Language existed far before music symphonies and can actually be linked to evolutionary successes. Music triggers emotions, language communicates information, whether it be dangers or resources.

  11. I liked he's speech but I find kind of annoying the fact that he uses Beethoven as an example of what can be achieved, first of all Beethoven wasn't born def so he had plenty time to appreciate and understand the sounds in an orchestra in order for him to write a piece, and after he became def or was on his way he didn't really need the sound. Music is not only about beauty in sound, music is also beauty in math because is perfect and works every time if you know what you're doing even if you'r

  12. I lost hearing in my right ear because of a medical condition. The bones in my ear were dissolved and I had to have a prosthetic bone put in. I can now hear out of my right ear and my left ear is just fine, but it made me realize how much I took stereo hearing fore granted

  13. I once got my right ear clogged with earwax and though this caused only very minor hearing loss in one ear, for only a couple days, it was AWFUL. Couldn't imagine loosing my hearing.

  14. I find this technology astounding, that someone can be born and never hear a note in their life. I think this man is rather inspirational in the research he is doing, but I couldn't help but laugh when he said "A deaf surgeon is largely unheard of", he didn't even realise he did it.

  15. Very interesting talk, in many ways.
    It takes us into the world of people who literally sense their world differently.

  16. @Storhonta I'm asking about the the music that the guy with the implant played. that was not mentioned… so i don't see how your comment made any sense

  17. Much as I am grateful for the information…In would like to think that there will soon be a time when the four legged are not used as experimental subjects.

  18. @ancestralblue As humans we are the stewards of animals. We have a responsibility to treat them humanely, but they are not like us. They are altogether different from us. And having been to a children's cancer ward, I would rather that a few of our 4 legged friends be used to cure a child's disease than look the same children in the face and say, "sorry, you don't rate the life of a cat in order to figure out what is wrong with you."

  19. @cammameil Yes…we are the stewards in this place…here to help facilitate evolution not to profit from it.
    The children's cancer wards are full of children being treated for profit by the big pharma machine that cares not whether they live or they die as long as it makes money.
    The cures for cancer have been many and snuffed out by the machine as a threat to it's bottom line.Google Harry Hoxie, Max Gershon, The Essiac Cure, Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski. The are known and suppressed.

  20. @TheGerogero That is very curious, to think that "the truth" does not exist, but I'm more interested in your semantic interpretation of atheism as "the absence of belief in (a) God" which to you apparently totally =/= "belief in the absence of (a) God"… Atheism (as a belief) is by definition the specific belief in the absence of (a) God. Contrast with Atheism as a concept, which is simply the absence of belief in God, not the absence of belief in general.

  21. @ancestralblue No, you are way off the rails. I am not going to debate conspiracy theories with you. And it is interesting that you sidestepped the point of my comment: a human is worth more than a cat. Probably because that isn't an argument you want to make. Show me a cat whose life is worth more than a person's life.

  22. @cammameil Obviously you are a part of the "industry" and not wanting to deal with the profit motive.
    The cat "argument"? We are subordinate to natural law. All manipulations of that have led to destruction of all kinds.
    Until we face that and quit thinking that we are better than the rest of life, we'll just keep destroying everything that we touch.
    And we have to be much more than profit driven.
    Allopathy is purely about profit and not about healing.

  23. @CatFlashBlue Sounds like people born without money for 3 meals a day should not be offered any help, cos starving is their identity… Yes?

  24. @CatFlashBlue What's wrong with try to fix homosexuality. Is all about choice isn't it. If people can have a choice to have surgery to change their sex , why shouldn't there also be a choice for people that do want to change their sexual preference. Getting back to the video, is not like people are forcing them deaf people to have implants done, but individually they should have the choice to do so, if the technology became available.

  25. @kris6682 I feel sorry for people who hears music, especially ones that really enjoys music. Music is for people with problems.

  26. @halfthishalfthat Cool, you understand my position. Although it's a funny thing if the same term is fundamentally different when simply regarded as either a belief or concept – which is another reason why I think the former is invalid. What annoys me is that I have no term for "I believe there is no God".

  27. @CatFlashBlue It's a good thing you specified the similarity is found in the feeling of rejection. Nonetheless, it's still an unstable analogy because homosexuality is not a birth defect as being born deaf is. I can imagine some are perfectly happy, hearing impairment and all – but surely you accept that the foremost meaning of "fixing it" is simply helping them out in terms of getting along in common society? The talk itself is about sharing the joy of music – not correcting them.

  28. @KaylinJH I know homosexuality isn't a choice. What I am saying is that, some people might choose to be straight even though their body tell them otherwise if there be a drug to fix that it be wonderful, just like, being born with a penis isn't a choice, but someone people choose to have it cut off and dress like a lady. And i absolutely have no problem with that. More pussy for me

  29. @TheGerogero But that is the nature of language. Semantically different referents and senses contained within the same word. If you choose to discount atheism as a belief, you lose the ability to use the term to mean "I believe there is no God". However, most ideolects permit both possible readings of the word "atheism" and it is defined by context.

  30. @halfthishalfthat Seems to be the impasse between the scientific and (for lack of a better word) the poetic perspective. I must concede, language is of the latter and so I ought not consider the definition as belief to be unacceptable. It may well be a belief for some. I think my opposition is rooted in a perceived necessity to distinguish my skeptical world view from that of faith-based theistic religions – given that "belief" is very close to "faith".

  31. @GamertagS3CS33 Only GOOD TED Talks are posted and your suggestion doesn't seem to lend itself well to a GOOD talk.

  32. @GamertagS3CS33 No they shouldn't, cuz u can never know for sure whats true, you're just deliberately asking for disinfo like this. Some people r fuckin tired of hearing about all kinds of conspiracy crap, cuz u can never know EXACTLY whats true, whats not and if the source isn't deliberate disinfo. Just watch/read all the damn news & sources look around and use your own frickin brain or else it doesn't matter and stop poluting good channels with idiotic suggestions.

  33. The title had me expecting something on on music and psychology or psycho-acoustics, but it only alludes to these fascinating topics and makes those areas seem depressingly feeble. Still this is amazing technology. I assume it's also far from able to provide the phase discrimination that assists us in locating the source of sounds. I would be very interested in knowing more about the technical limits of these implants so I can better understand the musical gap.

  34. @CatFlashBlue No one forces them to have ears… It's their democratic right to choose not to have ears… But it is about those who want them… Ears just get you better social accessibility like crutches do…. It's better to walk than not, it's better to hear than not also…

  35. @GamertagS3CS33 Sometimes though, musicians and audio engineers need to be reminded about how lucky they are for the fact that they're blessed with a set of organs which make their worlds complete.

    Actually, everyone should be reminded of that, because once it's gone, there's usually no way back.

  36. @eyu1858945 "Music is for people with problems" i feel sorry for someone that has so many problems that not only can they not enjoy the beauty of music but they are also incapable of admitting they have problems like everyone else get a life and go find some good music to listen to

  37. @stella456 You're welcome… I happen to have learnt this piece, apart from having heard it so many times… Are you a musician too?

  38. Maybe music that sounds out of tune for us will sound great for people with hearing problems. That could be like a whole new market! All you have to do is alter the original version and that's it. Money in the bank!

  39. Can anyone explain how speakers of tonal languages, like Chinese, are able to communicate in said languages after cochlear implants? Or is the answer as simple as, they can't?

  40. @GamertagS3CS33 If so then that's even more useless. Well excuse me if I don't want everyone to talk about conspiracies. Sure, some of them r interesting, but TED's not the place, it should be about facts and new ideas, not a bunch of "theories" full of wild guesses. That's not educating anyone. Go to alex jones or w/e.

  41. @ogrish84 @ogrish84 Money is irrelevant, uploading in HD can take a lot of time – especially when they could have really bad internet speeds which most places do. HD is not a standard now and arguing that it is vital and the only reason it could not be used is if they were to cost a lot is insulting the works created, the people behind these videos and any great content ont he internet whether they use HD cameras or not.

  42. @satyu131089 I can play the piano, haven't played in over a year though, but when i saw the video I thought that I'd like to learn that when I get to that

  43. @CatFlashBlue did you just compare an handicap like not being able to hear, to being gay? Deaf people just don't want to be alone at being deaf.

  44. @CatFlashBlue Yes it's another culture and they don't want to be alone, I agree about that. But how did the afro-Amer. react when racism slightly disappeared? They liked it, except for a few. Is the part that brings out the message that they do not want to be cured of deafness just a very small very vocal group (no pun intended). Btw Gay people don't have a disability because they don't miss anything, they don't miss the whole Love thing. Deaf people do miss something, a sense. That's different

  45. @masterofsynapsis Piss off. I'm a CI recipient and I could tell the difference between the different Usher songs and the Violin and Trumpet, and the song at the beginning, it was very 'out of tune' the second time and not as cheerful and vibrant as it 'appeared' to be the first time. So I kindly and respectfully beg you to consider that this 'display of our finest' is not that, it is what he perceives to be the 'finest'. So get back to synapsing and understand that he might just be wrong.

  46. I had a piss-poor day at the construction site today and I could almost kill a random person with my bare hands, on my way home.
    But watching that little girl and then her again, 10 years later, made me so happy!
    But really, no wonder hearing impaired people dont enjoy music on the radio. Who does? They play the same disco song three times an hour! Borderline brainwashing, if you ask me.

  47. How come no one tries to shape the receiver of the implant to adjust the wavelength of the sounds the way our ears do? Or why not some small repeater that breaks the frequencies "apart" before delivering them to the inner ear implant? It makes sense that there isn't anything to separate the tones as efficiently as the outer ear.

  48. Beethoven was stone deaf of the 10 last years of his life. He wrote his biggest master pieces when he was compleatly deaf, like his 9th symphony, grosse fuge etc…

  49. It is common for people who work in medicine to also play a musical instrument of some sort. Helps them deal with the loss of all of those people that they couldn't help, apparently.

  50. I'm surprised that there aren't more "dislikes" on this page. I am a hearing person and a music teacher, but I also have a very special place in my heart for the Deaf and Deaf culture. There are many who feel that cochlear implants and other hearing devices detract from a rich lifestyle and culture that a child can experience when he/she is deaf. Music is not the only form of beauty out there, and the Deaf have their own definition of what beauty is.

  51. I know Beethoven put his ear to the ground to pick up slight vibrations….but still….that is not the same as normal hearing and the fact that he composed the music he did under those conditions, is nothing short of awe inspiring. Of course, you can tell what impact that had on his music as much of it is very rhythmic and staccato. But, a piece like his 7th symphony is so melodically subtle. That symphony is one of the best ever written imo. That a deaf guy wrote it blown my mind.

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  57. there are a few things that i just need to say about this TED Talk. my sister is profoundly deaf and has 2 Cochlear Implants. She was first implanted when she was 2 and again at 10. #1: both of us are competitive Irish Dancers, which is difficult even for a hearing person. she is able to understand and count the music and stay on beat without help. that alone tells me that she is comfortable with music. #2 she has an ipod full of music that she takes everywhere. to say that music does not sound good to CI recipients is not entirely accurate. this TED Talk seemed slightly one-sided. 

  58. to the person below that asked aobut the cat.  He said the cats are genetically deaf.  The casing the cat has on is most likely to cover the magnet and cord that has to be on the outside of the head, so that the cat will not pull it off.

  59. I am now 17 years old and I have an implant for my middle ear, because of an ear polyp, that nearly destroyed my inner ear. Luckily I have great Doctors at the Clinic who managed to restore my ear. Concerning my ear, I always had Problems with it, so I never heard with the full potential, which means I don't know how it sounds to hear with 100% of the hearing potential and it took many operations (14 – 16 I am not sure) until I could hear again properly. There were times in which I was going 2-3 times in the hospital per year.
    I was always interested in music and I play the e-bass, guitar and keyboard/piano.
    By now I am also mixing tracks and do recordings so I am really happy that medicine could help me with the problem. Otherwise, I wouldn't be able to make music now and chasing my Dreams.

  60. What he said about language is not entirely correct. I mean, it does matter if it's plesant to the ear or not. It doesn't matter when you're a child, obviously you learn any language of your parents with the same ease. But when it comes to learning second, third, etc. you may find an obvious psychological obsticle that you simply DON'T LIKE to learn how it sounds. Both in your ears and in your head (when it comes to reading). Now, that's interesting. One could find it insignificant (who cares if you're too lazy to overcome yourself), but think again. Actually, what do we know about how certain languages contributed to the development of different civilizations? I would say the probability is quite high. When we talk about why some cultures were more succesfull than the others, well, maybe it wasn't just luck and resourses (which is the same thing, you're lucky to find them around you or not so much). Maybe their brains were more stimulated. And how exactly was it stimulated. I'll try to do more research on that. Definately the speaker provokes some thought, so thank you.

  61. For those here for music : THIS VIDEO IS NOT ABOUT MUSIC. It discusses about the progress being made in cochlear implants. People with implants cant hear music properly. Thats all there is to it.

  62. This is So Cool especially for me…I was the Classical Guitarist that used to play all the events for the company that created this technology!

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